Sūtra 1-20

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधीप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् । (१-२o)

Śraddhāvīryasmṛtisamādhiprajñāpūrvaka itareṣām (1-20)
(Śraddhā-vīrya-smṛti-samādhi-prajñā-pūrvakaḥ itareṣām)
Others achieve (asaṁprajñatasamādhi) backed by
faith, valor, memory, equanimity and knowledge

This sūtra has one compound, Śraddhā-vīrya-smṛti-samādhi-prajñā-pūrvakaḥ. This connects with the ‘other’ samādhi mentioned in (1-18), that is, asaṁprajñatasamādhi. The words of the compound are the ones indicated by Vyāsa as upāya meaning method. The method here comprises Śraddhā, vīrya, smṛti, samādhi, and prajñā. The last term in the compound, pūrvakaḥ technically means “that which has as prior”, but in terms of English syntax, here one can translated as ‘backed by’ or ‘preceded by’.

Śraddhā, from the verb dhā with the prefix śrath and two suffixes a and ā are added to the verb to a noun in feminine gender. This word means ‘trust, faith, belief, confidence, respect’. Though the usual meaning is faith, commentator Vyāsa explains this word to mean ‘cetasaḥ saṁprasādaḥ’ clarity of mind. Thus the word does not mean just faith, which can be taken to be a blind faith. One does not have clarity of mind in blind faith. According to him the word implies a clarity of mind regarding yoga practice as the means of attaining freedom. This is based on an understanding of Yogasūtras.

Vīryaḥ is derived from vīra, meaning ‘heroic, brave, mighty’ by addition of the suffix ya. This word in context means valor.

Smṛtiḥ, this word in feminine gender is formed from the verb smṛ (to remember) by the addition of suffix ti and it means memory.

Samādhiḥ is formed from the verb dhā with two prefixes sam and ā and suffix i. This word does not mean the eighth limb of yama, niyama etc., but means “well placed”, that is, a mind that is in focus without any distraction.

Prajñā, from the verb jñā with prefix pra and suffixes a and ā means clear knowledge. Here it means clear knowledge of the I, the puruṣa is not connected to the body and mind which is prakṛti.

Based on this analysis this long word means ‘backed by clarity of mind, valor, memory, mind in focus and clear knowledge’.

The second word itareṣām is the sixth case plural form of itara meaning “other”.
The strict word for word translation will be ‘Others have asaṁprajñatasamādhi (that is) preceded by faith, valor, memory, mind in focus and knowledge’. We prefer the English rendering to be “Others achieve (asaṁprajñatasamādhi) backed by faith, valor, memory, equanimity and knowledge.”

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