Category Archives: Samadhi Pada

Sūtra 1-38

tra 1-38
स्वप्ननिद्राज्ञानालम्बनं वा। (३८)
Svapnanidrājñānālambanam vā.* (38)
(Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambanam vā.)
Or (by using the) support of knowledge of dream or deep sleep
(brings about steadiness of mind.)

 

Sūtra words

Svapnanidrājñānālambanam and

 

Word Formation

Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambanam: A form of tatpuruṣa compound formed from a dvandva compound svapnanidrā and jñāna; this is again compounded with ālambana to form another tatpuruṣa compound Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambana. The word is in first case singular, neuter gender

Svapna: Formed from the verb svap with the substantive forming suffix na.
nidrā:Formed from the verb nidrā with the addition of a ‘nil’ suffix to form a substantive.
jñāna: Formed from the verb jñā with the substantive forming suffix ana.
ālambanam: Substantive formed from the verb lamb with prefix ā and suffix ana
: indeclinable

 

Meaning of Words

Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambanam: Support of knowledge of dream or sleep

svapna: dream
nidrā: sleep
jñāna: knowledge
ālambalam: support
: indeclinable

(*This sūtra also uses sūtra 1-35 to complete its meaning. This process of flow through of a complete prior aphorism of parts there off is called anuvṛtti, a common construct in figuring out meaning of sūtras)

Sūtra 1-37

Sūtra 1-37
वीतरागविषयं वा चित्तम्। (३७)
Vītarāgaviṣayam vā cittam*. (37)
(Vīta-rāga-viṣayam vā cittam.)
Or (perception of an) object free from desires (brings about steadiness of mind.)

 

Sūtra words

Vīta-rāga-viṣayam, vā and cittam

 

Word Formation

Vīta-rāga-viṣayam: A bahuvṛīhi compound formed from vīta, rāga and viṣayam, the word is in first case singular, neuter gender
Vīta: verb ī with prefix vi and the past passive participial suffix ta

rāga: verb rasj with suffx a to form a substantive-
viṣayam : verb si with prefix vi and suffix a to from the substantive
: indeclinable
cittam: verb cit with past passive participial suffix ta

 

Meaning of Words

Vīta-rāga-viṣayam: an object free from desire
Vīta: free from
rāga: desire / binding attachment
viṣayam: object
: or
cittam: mind

(*This sūtra also uses sūtra 1-35 to complete its meaning. This process of flow through of a complete prior aphorism of parts there off is called anuvṛtti, a common construct in figuring out meaning of sūtras)

Sūtra 1-36

Sūtra 1-36
विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती। (३६)
Viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī*. (36)
Or, (perception of oneself as) luminous and free from sorrow (brings about steadiness of mind).

 

Sūtra words

Viśokā, vā and jyotiṣmatī.

Word Formation

Viśokā: First case singular, feminine gender noun formed from the verb śuc with prefix vi and suffixes a and ā.

: Indeclinable

jyotiṣmatī: First case singular feminine gender noun formed from jyotis with taddhita suffix mat and feminine gender forming suffix ā. This is in apposition with viśokā.

Meaning of Words

Viśokā: Free from sorrow / grief

: or

jyotiṣmatī: luminous

(*This sūtra uses sūtra 1-35 to complete its meaning. This process of flow through of a complete prior aphorism of parts there off is called anuvṛtti, a common construct in figuring out meaning of sūtras)

Sutra 1-35

Sūtra 1-35
विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना मनसस्स्थितिनिबन्धिनी। (३५)
Viṣayavatī vā pravṛttirutpannā manasassthitinibandhinī. (35)
Viṣayavatī vā pravṛttiḥ utpannā manasaḥ sthiti-nibandhinī. (35)
Or, (perception of) an object generated by (sensory) activity brings about steadiness of mind.

Sūtra words
Viṣayavatī vā pravṛttiḥ utpannā manasaḥ sthiti-nibandhinī

Word formation
Viṣayavatī — First case singular of feminine gender substantive viṣayavatī. This is formed from the substantive viṣaya to which a taddhita suffix vat is added, followed by the feminine gender forming suffix ī. Viṣaya, the substantive itself is formed from the verb si (to bind) with the prefix vi and substantive forming suffix a.
— Indeclinable
pravṛttiḥ — First case singular of feminine gender substantive pravṛtti, formed from the verb vṛt with prefix pra and suffix ti.
utpannā — First case singular of feminine gender substantive utpannā, formed from the verb pad with prefix ud and suffixes a and ā.
manasaḥ — Sixth case singular of neuter gender substantive manas formed from the verb man with suffix as.
sthiti-nibandhinī — First case singular of feminine gender of a sixth case tatpuruṣa compound substantive. This is resolved as: sthiternibandhinī.
Sthiti 
is formed from the verb sthā and suffix ti; nibhandhinī is formed from the verb badh (to bind) with the prefix ni and suffixes a,  in and ī.

Meaning of words
Viṣayavatī – that which has an object
— or
pravṛttiḥ — activity
utpannā – created, generated
manasaḥ — of the mind
sthiti-nibandhinī – binding of steadiness (best English rendering is presented in the translation)
sthiti — steadiness
nibandhinī – that which binds, binding, fixing

Sutra 1-34

Sūtra 1-34
प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य। (३४)
Pracchardanavidhāraṇābhyām vā prāṇasya. (34)
Pracchardana-vidhāraṇābhyām vā prāṇasya. (34)
Or, (there is steadiness of mind) by (forced) exhalation and retention of breath.

Sūtra words
Pracchardana-vidhāraṇābhyām, vā, and prāṇasya

Word formation
Pracchardana-vidhāraṇābhyām – Third case dual form of the dvandva compound pracchardana-vidhāraṇa comprising two words pracchardana and vidhāraṇa.
Pracchardana — Abstract noun formed from the verb chard (to eject, push out) wit the prefix vi (to accentuate the verb meaning) and substantive forming suffix ana.
Vidhāraṇa — Abstract noun formed from the verb dhṛ (to hold, retain, ) wit the prefix vi (to accentuate the verb meaning) and substantive forming suffix ana.
 — indeclinable
Prāṇasya — Sixth case singular of the substantive prāṇa, formed from the verb an (to breathe) with the prefix pra (to accentuate the verb meaning) and substantive forming suffix a.

Meaning of words
Pracchardana-vidhāraṇābhyām — By forceful exhalation and retention
Pracchardana — Forceful ejection
Vidhāraṇa — Retention
— or
Prāṇasya — Of breath
The sūtra meaning is not clear from the meaning of words. To make sense one has to take the expressions manasaḥ and sthiti (steadiness of mind) from the following aphorism (1-35).

Sūtra 1-33

Sūtra 1-33
मैत्रीकरुणामुदितोपेक्षाणां सुखदुःखपुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां
भावनातश्चित्तप्रसादनम्। (३३)
Maitrīkaruṇāmuditopekṣāṇām sukhaduḥkhapuṇyāpuṇyaviṣayāṇām bhāvanātaścittaprasādanam. (33)
Maitrī-karuṇā-mudita-upekṣāṇām sukha-duḥkha-puṇya-apuṇya-viṣayāṇām bhāvanātaḥ citta-prasādanam. (33)
(There is) clarity of mind due to cultivation of friendliness, compassion, happiness and indifference to the happy, sorrowful, good and bad (people) respectively.

Sūtra words
Maitrī-karuṇā-mudita-upekṣāṇām, sukha-duḥkha-puṇya-apuṇya-viṣayāṇām, bhāvanātaḥ and citta-prasādanam.

Word Formation
Maitrī-karuṇā-mudita-upekṣāṇām — SIxth case plural form of the dvandva compound Maitrī-karuṇā-mudita-upekṣā comprising the words maitrī, karuṇā, mudita, and upekṣā.
Maitrī — Abstract noun formed from the word mitra by the addition of a taddhita suffix ya and the feminine gender suffix ī, mitra itself is derived from the verb mid ‘to be affectionate, friendly’ and the suffix tra.
karuṇā — Feminine gender noun formed from the verb kṛ by adding the suffixes una and ā.
mudita — Formed from the verb mud by addition of the past participial suffix ta.
upekṣā — Feminine gender noun formed from the verb īkṣ with prefix upa and suffixes a and ā.

sukha-duḥkha-puṇya-apuṇya-viṣayāṇām — SIxth case plural form of the dvandva compound sukha-duḥkha-puṇya-apuṇya-viṣaya comprising the words sukha, duḥkha, puṇya, apuṇya, and viṣaya.
sukha — formed by adding the prefix su to kha
duḥkha — formed by adding the prefix dus to kha
puṇya — formed by adding the suffix ya to the verb
apuṇya — a negative compound of puṇya formed by adding the negative particle na as the first word of the compound  which changes to a
viṣaya — formed by adding the prefix vi to the verb si and suffix a

bhāvanātaḥ — An indeclinable formed by addition of the taddhita suffix tas to the word bhāvanā.
bhāvanā — verb bhū with causal suffix i and suffix ana.

citta-prasādanam — A sixth case tatpuruṣa compound resolved as cittasya prasādanam.
citta — suffix ta added to the verb cit.
prasādana — formed by adding the prefix pra to the verb sad and causal suffix i and suffix ana.

Meaning of words
Maitrī-karuṇā-mudita-upekṣāṇām — (One who has) friendship, compassion, happiness and indifference;
Maitrī — friendship, karuṇā — compassion, mudita –– compassion upekṣā — indifference

sukha-duḥkha-puṇya-apuṇya-viṣayāṇām — towards those who are happy, sorrowful, good and bad (respectively)
sukha — happy, duḥkha –  unhappy, puṇya — righteous (good) apuṇyaunrighteous (bad), viṣaya — person (respectively)

bhāvanātaḥ — because of this reflection (attitude)

citta-prasādanam — clarity of mind
citta — mind, prasādanam — clarity