(योग., अव.) इत्थं दृश्यद्रष्टारौ व्याख्याय तत्संयोगं व्याख्यातुमाह।
(Yogasudhākara, Avatārikā ) Ittham dṛśyadraṣṭāru vyākhyāya tat-saṁyogam vyākhyātum āha.
(Yoga. Intro.) Having explained the perceived and the perceiver, states their association.
स्वस्वामिशक्त्यो: स्वरूपोलब्धिहेतु: संयोगः। (सूत्रम् २.२३)
Sva-swami-śaktyoḥ svarūpa-upalabdhi-hetuḥ sam-yogaḥ. (2.23)
(योग.) स्वशक्तिर्दृश्यस्वभावः स्वामिशक्तिर्दृक्स्वभाव:। तयोश्चैत्तचेतनत्वेन व्यवस्थितयो: स्वरूपोलब्धिर्भोगापवर्गरूपा। तस्या हेतु: प्रत्ययः संयोगो द्ग्दृश्यभावोsविद्याकृत इति व्याख्यातम्। एवं च यस्याभावे दृग्दृश्ययो: स्वरूपोलब्धिर्न भवति यद्भावे सा भवति स संयोग:2.23.1 कार्यैकोन्नेय इत्युपदिष्टं भवति।
(Yoga.) Sva-śaktiḥ dṛśya-svabhāvaḥ svāmi- śaktiḥ dṛk-svabhāvaḥ. Tayoḥ caitta-cetanatvena vyavasthitayoḥ svrūpa-upalabdhiḥ bhoga- apavarga-rūpā. Tasyāḥ hetuḥ pratyayaḥ sam-yogaḥ dṛk-dṛśya-bhāvaḥ avidyākṛtaḥ iti vyākhyātam. Evam ca yasya abhāve dṛk-dṛśyayoḥ svarūpa-upalabdhiḥ na bhavati yat-bhāve sā bhavati saḥ sam-yogaḥ kāryā ekā unneyaḥ iti upadiṣṭam bhavati.
(Yoga. Com.) Sva-śaktiḥ is the nature of the perceived (the insentient pradhāna/prakṛti ), svāmi-śaktiḥ is the nature of the perceiver (sentiency puruṣa ).1 With the insentient (prakṛti) and the sentient (puruṣa) being present (in association), there is enjoyment and liberation (for the perceiver, the human being, puruṣa enshrined in the evolute of prakṛti). The cause of this association, the state of the perceiver and the perceived, is ignorance – this is substance of the aphorism.
And thus, in the absence of which there is no perceiver and perceived, and in its presence, both perceiver and perceived are available.2 The elimination of this association is the only task (for the seeker), this is the instruction here (in this yogaśāstra).
This is the audio of our discussion of 2.21.
This aphorism (2.21) was discussed in Yogasūtra group in September 2017.
Sadāśivabrahmendra‘s Yogasudhākara commentary
(योगसुधाकर:) इत्थं दृश्यद्रष्टारावभिधाय तयो: शेषशेषित्वमभिधातुमाह।
(Yogasudhākaraḥ) Ittham dṛśyadraṣṭāru abhidhāya śeṣaśeṣitvam abhdhatum āha.(Introduction to the sūtra) Thus defining the perceived and the perceiver, to express their object-subject connection he (Patañjali) says:
तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा। (सू. २.२१) Tat-arthaḥ eva dṛśyasa ātmā. (2.21)
The essence of the perceived (world of objects) is only
for the sake of the perceiver (subject). (2.21)
(योगसुधाकर:) दृश्यस्य भोग्यस्यात्मा स्वरूपं द्रष्ट्रर्थमेव न स्वार्थमचेतनत्वादित्यर्थः।
(Yogasudhākaraḥ) dṛśyasya: bhogyasya, atmā: svarūpam, draṣṭṛ-artham eva na sva-artham acetantvāt iti arthaḥ
(Yogasudhākara commentary)The essence of the perceived is for the perceiver; not for its own sake, since it (the perceived, pradhāna) is insentient – this is meaning. 2.21.1
2.21.1 I use the word ‘perceived’ for dṛśya/pradhāna, this includes the phenomenal world as well as the body and mind of the perceiver (who is the seeker/ the liberated person). And, ‘ ‘perceiver’ is for dṛg/draṭṛ/puruṣa ).
तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजस्समाधिः। (५१)
Tasyāpi nirodhe sarvanirodhānnirbījassamādhiḥ.
(Tasya api nirodhe sarva-nirodhāt
nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ) (51)
When even that (ṛtambhara, sabīja samādhi)
is restrained, (there ensues) seedless meditative absorption (nirbījaamādhi).
Tasya, api, nirodhe, sarva-nirodhāt, nirbījaḥ and samādhiḥ
Tasya Sixth case singular of pronoun tat
Nirodhe Seventh case singular masculine gender form of nirodha derived from the verb rudh with prefix ni and suffix a.
Sarva-nirodhāt Fifth case singular form of the sixth case of tatpuruṣa compound sarvanirodha from sarva and nirodha.
Nirbījaḥ First case singular masculine gender form of nirbīja, from the verb īj with prefixes ni and vi and suffix a.
Samādhiḥ First case singular masculine gender.
Tasya Of that (ṛtambhara)
Api also, even
Nirodhe when there is restraint / on restraint
Sarva-nirodhāt because of restraint of all
(Tajjaḥ saṁskāraḥ anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī) (50)
The subtle impression born out of that (truth bearing wisdom) obstruct other impressions.
Tajjaḥ, saṁskāraḥ and anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī
Tajjaḥ First case singular, masculine gender of the compound tajja. This is derived from pronoun tat as the first member of the compound and the verb jan with suffix a.
saṁskāraḥ First case singular, masculine gender of saṁskāra. This is derived from the verb kṛ with prefix sam and suffix a.
anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī First case singular, masculine gender form of anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhin. Anya-saṁskāra is a type of tatpuruṣa compound of words anaya and saṁskāra. Pratibandhin is from the verb badh with prefix prati and suffix in. anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhin is a sixth case tatpuruṣa compound of words anya-saṁskāra and pratibandhī.
Tajjaḥ-saṁskāraḥ Subtle impressions born out of that (ṛtambharā prajñā)
Anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī (is) opposed to other subtle impressions.
श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात्। (४९)
(Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām anya-viṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt) (49)
(It, Ṛtaṁbharā) has a different focus from that of inference and scripture, because it has a particular (/ unique) object (namely the subject, the self, puruṣa).
Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām, anya-viṣayā and viśeṣārthatvāt
Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām Fifth case dual feminine gender form of the compound Śruta-anumāna-prajñā comprising Śruta, anumāna and prajñā. Śruta is from the verb Śru and participle ta; anumāna is from the verb mā with prefix anu and suffix ana.
Anya-viṣayā First case singular feminine gender form of the bahuvrīhi compound formed from anya and viṣaya.
Viśeṣārthatvāt Fifth case singular neuter gender form of the word Viśeṣārthatva. This is from the compound Viśeṣārtha to which a taddhita suffix tva is added. The fifth case is used to indicate ‘cause’.
Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām different from knowledge (gained) through Śruti, scripture and inference
Anya-viṣayā different object
Viśeṣārthatvāt Since it has a special / unique object (namely the self)
ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा। (४८)
Ṛtaṁbharā tatra prajñā.
(Ṛtaṁbharā tatra prajñā) (48)
In that state (of sabīja-samāpatti there is) clear cognition is only Truth (of oneself). (48)
Ṛtaṁbharā, tatra, and prajñā
Ṛtaṁbharā First case singular feminine gender form of Ṛtaṁbhara, a compound formed from Ṛtam and bhara. These two component words are formed from the verbs ṛ with suffix ta and bhṛ with suffix a respectively.
Tatra Seventh case singular of the pronoun tat.
Prajñā First person singular feminine gender form of Prajñā from the verb jan suffixes a and ā
Ṛtaṁbharā Filled with truth, in context it means there is no error or confusion about the nature of oneself. Technically this word is also used in the tradition as a sabīja-samāpatti called dharmamegha.
Tatra There, in that state of sabīja-samāpatti
Prajñā Cognition, understanding
(Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye adhyātma-prsādaḥ) (47)
When one is an adept in Nirvicāra-samāpatti
there is clarity regarding the core of the self.
Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye and adhyātma-prsādaḥ
Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye Seventh case singular, neuter gender form of Nirvicāra-vaiśāradya, a compound. This sixth case tatpuruṣa compound has two component words, Nirvicāra and vaiśāradya. The second word is formed from viśārada by adding taddhita suffix ya. Viśārada is from the verb śṝ with prefix vi and suffixes ad, and a.
adhyātma-prsādaḥ First case singular, masculine gender form of adhyātma-prasāda. This sixth case tatpuruṣa compound has two component words, adhyātma and prasāda.
prasāda is derived from the verb sad with prefix pra and suffix a.
adhyātma is an indeclinable compound formed from adhi and ātman
Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye When there is an proficiency in nirvicāra-samāpatti
adhyātma-prsādaḥ (there is) clarity regarding the core of one’s Being, the puruṣa.
adhyātma centered on oneself, core of oneself, core of one’s being. The indeclinable prefix adhi is used in the sense of location.
prasāda clarity, steadiness.