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Sūtra 1-45

Sūtra 1-45
सूक्ष्मविषयत्वञ्चालिङ्गपर्यवसानम्। (४५)
Sūkṣmaviṣayatvañcāliṅgaparyavasānam.
(Sūkṣma-viṣayatvam ca aliṅga-paryavasānam) (45)
Subtle nature of objects ends in that which is devoid of any pointers to it (Prakṛti). (45)

Sūtra words
Sūkṣma-viṣayatvam, ca and aliṅga-paryavasānam

Word formation
Sūkṣma-viṣayatvam First case singular neuter gender of sūkṣma-viṣayatva. This is formed from the compound sūkṣma-viṣaya with addition of a taddhita suffix tva having the sense ‘the nature of. Sūkṣma-viṣaya is a type of tatpuruṣa compound, called karmadhāraya formed from sūkṣma and viṣaya.
ca Indeclinable
aliṅga-paryavasānam First case singular neuter gender of the bahuvrīhi compound aliṅga-paryavasāna from the words aliṅga and paryavasāna. Aliṅga is formed from the term liṅga with a prefix called negative particle (more like addition of un / in / a to words – imaginable / imitable / typical).  Paryavasāna is formed from the verb so with prefixes pari and ava and suffix ana.

Word meaning
Sūkṣma-viṣayatvam The nature of subtle object. Sūkṣma subtle, viṣaya object, viṣayatva nature of the object
ca and
Aliṅga-paryavasānam is that which ends in the attributeless. Aliṅga etymologically means that which has no liṅga, attribute, pointer. That is, there is no way to express what it is, the cause of everything, prakṛti.

  • This aphorism elaborates on nirvicāra-samāpatti practice, that the object of focus is not expressible by any description.

Sūtra 1-44

Sūtra 1-44
एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषया व्याख्याता। (४४)
Etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca
sūkṣmaviṣayā vyākhyātā.
(Etayā eva savicārā nirvicārā ca
sūkṣma-viṣayā vyākhyātā) (44)
Indeed in this manner, the subtler objects of reflective and non-reflective samāpatti (are) explained.

Sūtra words
Etayā, eva, savicārā, nirvicārā, ca, sūkṣma-viṣayā and vyākhyātā.

Word formation
Etayā Third case singular feminine gender pronoun etat.
eva Indeclinable
savicārā First case singular feminine gender form of savicāra. This is a compound of viacāra with the word saha, viacāra itself is formed from the verb car with prefix vi and suffix a.
nirvicārā Is also a first case singular feminine gender form, but of nirviacāra. This word is formed by the addition of prefix nis to vicāra.ca indeclinable
sūkṣma-viṣayā A type of tatpuruṣa compound, the component words being sūkṣma and viṣaya. The word is in first case singular, feminine gender.
vyākhyātā The word also is in first case singular, feminine gender. Vyākhyātā is from the verb khyā with prefixes vi and ā, and suffix ta and feminine gender forming suffix ā.

Word meaning
Etayā By this (In this manner, likewise)
eva indeed
savicārā reflective
nirvicārā non-reflective (supra-reflective)
ca and
sūkṣma-viṣayā subtle subject
(samāpatti from 1-42) samādhi
vyākhyātā (is) explained

  • Similar to deliberative samādhi evolving to non-deliberative, the subtler reflective and nonreflective (also translated as supra-reflective) samādhis are further evolution, or progression of samādhi states of the mind. (Ref. Sūtra 1-17 mentions the types of samprajñāta samādhi.)

Sūtra 1-43

Sūtra 1-43
स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशुन्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का। (४३)
Smṛtipariśuddhau svarūpaśūnyevārthamātranirbhāsā nirvitarkā.
(Smṛti-pari-śuddhau svarūpa-śūnya-iva artha-mātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā) (43)

When the memory is pure, the illumination of just the object (in the mind), appearing as though it were not there, is deliberation-free sāmadhi.

Sūtra words
Smṛti-pari-śuddhau, svarūpa-śūnya-iva, artha-mātra-nirbhāsā, and nirvitarkā.

Word Formation
Smṛti-pari-śuddhau Seventh case singular, feminine gender of the compound smṛti-pari-śuddhi. The component words of this sixth case tatpuruṣa compound are smṛti and pari-śuddhi. Smṛti, a feminine gender noun is formed from the verb smṛ and suffix ti. Pari-śuddhi, also a feminine gender noun is similarly derived from the verb śuddh with suffix ti and prefix pari.
svarūpa-śūnya-iva This compound is an indeclinable formed from svarūpa-śūnya and the indeclinable iva. Svarūpa-śūnya itself is a sixth case tatpuruṣa compound formed from svarūpa and śūnya; svarūpa is a compound comprising sva and rūpa.
artha-mātra-nirbhāsā Feminine gender first case singular form of a type of tatpuruṣa compound artha-mātra-nirbhāsa, whose component words are artha-mātra and nirbhāsā. The compound artha-mātra consists of two words artha and mātra. Nirbhāsā is formed from the verb bhăs with prefix nis and suffixes a and ā.
nirvitarkā is formed from the verb tarc with prefixes nis and vi and suffixes a and ā.

Word meaning
Smṛti-pari-śuddhau When the memory is pure
svarūpa-śūnya-iva as though devoid of its nature
artha-mātra-nirbhāsā clear illumination of just the object
nirvitarkā is a samādhi that is completely free of deliberative analysis.
(The word samāpatti, that is, samādhi flows from 1-42).

  • tarka means deliberation, logical analysis backed by inference. Vitarka, with the prefix vi emphasizes the process of deliberation. With another prefix sa the word savitarka in the previous aphorism is the kind of samādhi which is backed by deliberative process of knowing the object of contemplation. Continued practice of this savirarka-samādhi leads to a state in which there is no longer a need for this deliberative process since the memory is pure, that is free of doubt, error etc., and, this is called nirvirarka-samādhi. Note the anuvṛtti of samāpatti (synonymous with samādhi) from the previous aphorism.

Sūtra 1-42

Sūtra 1-42
तत्र शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैस्सङ्कीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः। (४२)
Tatra śabdārthajñanavikalpaissaṅkīrṇā
savitarkā samāpattiḥ.
(Tatra śabda-artha-jñana-vikalpaiḥ
saṅkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ) (42)

Regarding that (samādhi mentioned in the previous aphorism) samādhi with deliberation is that which has word, meaning, knowledge and conceptualization. (42)

Sūtra Words
Tatra śabda-artha-jñana-vikalpaiḥ, saṅkīrṇā, savitarkā and  samāpattiḥ.

Word Formation
Tatra Indeclinable
śabda-artha-jñana-vikalpaiḥ Third case plural, masculine gender form of the compound śabda-artha-jñana-vikalpa. This is a dvandva compound of words śabda, artha, jñana and vikalpa.
saṅkīrṇā First case singular, feminine gender form of saṅkīrṇa, past participial form of the verb kprefix sam and suffix ta and feminine gender forming suffix ā .
savitarkā First case singular, feminine gender form of savitarkā, formed from the verb tarc with suffixes a and ā, which is compounded with the indeclinable saha as the first member (only sa remains during compound formation).
samāpattiḥ First case singular, feminine gender form of samāpatti, formed from the verb pad with two prefixes sam and ā and the suffix ti.

Meaning of words
Tatra Regarding that (samāpatti mentioned in the previous aphorism)
śabda-artha-jñana-vikalpaiḥ by word, meaning and knowledge and conceptualization.
saṅkīrṇā mixed with
savitarkā with deliberation
samāpattiḥ samādhi.

Sūtra 1-41

Sūtra 1-41
क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु
तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः। (४१)
Kṣīṇavṛtterabhijātasyeva maṇergrahītṛgrahaṇagrāhyeṣu
tatsthatadañjanatā samāpattiḥ.(41)
Kṣīṇa-vṛtteḥ abhi-jātasya iva maṇeḥ
grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu
tat-stha-tad-añjanatā sam-āpattiḥ. (41)

(The citta, mind) with reduced thoughts (has gained) absorption (i.e., complete identification) with cognized, cognizer and cognition, just like a crystal (becoming one with the color of the object near it).

Sūtra Words
Kṣīṇa-vṛtteḥ, abhi-jātasya, iva, maṇeḥ, grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu, tat-stha-tad-añjanatā, and sam-āpattiḥ

Word Formation
Kṣīṇa-vṛtteḥ — Sixth case singular feminine gender form of the bahuvrīhi compound kṣīṇa-vṛtti. The compound comprises two substantives kṣīṇa and vṛtti; derived from the verb kṣi with addition of past participial suffix ta and the verb vṛt with feminine gender forming suffix ti.
abhi-jātasya — Sixth case singular masculine gender of the substantive abhi-jāta. It is formed from the verb jan with the prefix abhi and past participial suffix ta.
iva — indeclinable
maṇeḥ — sixth case singular of masculine substantive maṇi.
grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu — Seventh case plural masculine gender form of the substantive grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhya which is a dvandva compound of grahītṛ, grahaṇa and grāhya – all of which are derived from the same verb gṛh with suffixes tṛ, ana and ya respectively.
tat-stha-tad-añjanatā — This is an instance of compounds within a compound, tat-stha and tad-añjanatā being the components.
sam-ā-pattiḥ — This feminine gender word is in first person singular. The substantive is formed from the verb pad with two prefixes, sam and ā

Meaning of Words

Kṣīṇa-vṛtteḥ — (the citta that has) minimal thoughts
abhi-jātasya — in born / inherent
iva — as though,
maṇeḥ — crystal has
grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu — with reference to the cognizer, cognition and object of cognition
tat-stha-tad-añjanatā — assuming their respective forms (becoming one with the cognizer etc.,)
sam-āpattiḥ — (is) absorption (samādhi).

 

  • Note: The translation is the best rendering, though not a strict word for word meaning. The word tat-stha-tad-añjanatā meaning the color (nature) of that which is at (near) the object. This word is common to both the illustration, the crystal and the illustrated, namely the citta. The citta becomes one with the object of meditation – be it the object, or the subject or the process of meditation.

 

 

Sūtra 1-40

Sūtra 1-40
परमाणुपरमहत्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः। (४०)
Paramāṇuparamamahatvānto’sya vaśīkāraḥ. (40)
Parama-aṇu-parama-mahatva-antaḥ
asya vaśīkāraḥ. (40)

The person’s mastery extends (from the) smallest atom to the biggest object.

Sūtra Words
Parama-aṇu-parama-mahatva-antaḥ, asya, and vaśīkāraḥ.

Word Formation
Parama-aṇu-parama-mahatva-antaḥ — First case singular, masculine gender compound, in apposition with vaśīkāraḥ, another masculine gender noun (in the same case and number). This is a compound within a compound, all are tatpuruṣa compounds. Parama and aṇu form paramāṇu, parama and mahatva form paramamahatva, and these two compounds combine with anta to yield the final compound that is declined in masculine gender.

asya — Sixth case singular of personal pronoun tat in masculine gender.

vaśīkāraḥ — This masculine gender first case word is derived from the verb vaś with suffixes a, i, the verb kṛ and suffix a, a unique formation of a substantive.

Meaning of Words
Parama-aṇu-parama-mahatva-antaḥ — (from the) smallest atom to the largest object. Parama added to aṇu, atom has the adjectival role of creating the superlative form of the noun ‘atom’, hence it is translated as smallest atom. Similarly parama added to mahatva means the largest object, and anta means limit, or end. This compound is translated – from the smallest atom to the biggest object. (This refers to the yogin’s ability to focus on the smallest to the largest gross or subtle object in meditation).

vaśīkāraḥ — mastery

Sūtra 1-39

Sūtra 1-39
यथाभिमतद्ध्यानाद्वा। (३९)
Yathābhimatadhyānādvā.* (39)
(Yathā-abhimata-dhyānāt vā.)
Or (perception of an object) that is most desired (brings about steadiness.)

 

Sūtra words

Yathā-abhimata-dhyānāt and

Word Formation

Yathā-abhimata-dhyānāt: A form of tatpuruṣa compound formed from yathā, abhimata and dhyāna, fifth case singular, neuter gender

Yathā: An indeclinable
abhimata: Formed from the verb man with prefix abhi and past participial suffix ta
dhyāna: verb dhyai with suffix ana
: indeclinable

Meaning of Words

Yathā-abhimata-dhyānāt: From (as a result of/ because of) meditation of what is most desired / liked

Yathā: in the manner
abhimata: most liked /desired
dhyāna: meditation
: or

(*This is the last one of this set that uses sūtra 1-35 to complete its meaning. This process of flow through of a complete prior aphorism of parts there off is called anuvṛtti, a common construct in figuring out meaning of sūtras)

Sūtra 1-38

tra 1-38
स्वप्ननिद्राज्ञानालम्बनं वा। (३८)
Svapnanidrājñānālambanam vā.* (38)
(Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambanam vā.)
Or (by using the) support of knowledge of dream or deep sleep
(brings about steadiness of mind.)

 

Sūtra words

Svapnanidrājñānālambanam and

 

Word Formation

Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambanam: A form of tatpuruṣa compound formed from a dvandva compound svapnanidrā and jñāna; this is again compounded with ālambana to form another tatpuruṣa compound Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambana. The word is in first case singular, neuter gender

Svapna: Formed from the verb svap with the substantive forming suffix na.
nidrā:Formed from the verb nidrā with the addition of a ‘nil’ suffix to form a substantive.
jñāna: Formed from the verb jñā with the substantive forming suffix ana.
ālambanam: Substantive formed from the verb lamb with prefix ā and suffix ana
: indeclinable

 

Meaning of Words

Svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambanam: Support of knowledge of dream or sleep

svapna: dream
nidrā: sleep
jñāna: knowledge
ālambalam: support
: indeclinable

(*This sūtra also uses sūtra 1-35 to complete its meaning. This process of flow through of a complete prior aphorism of parts there off is called anuvṛtti, a common construct in figuring out meaning of sūtras)

Sūtra 1-37

Sūtra 1-37
वीतरागविषयं वा चित्तम्। (३७)
Vītarāgaviṣayam vā cittam*. (37)
(Vīta-rāga-viṣayam vā cittam.)
Or (perception of an) object free from desires (brings about steadiness of mind.)

 

Sūtra words

Vīta-rāga-viṣayam, vā and cittam

 

Word Formation

Vīta-rāga-viṣayam: A bahuvṛīhi compound formed from vīta, rāga and viṣayam, the word is in first case singular, neuter gender
Vīta: verb ī with prefix vi and the past passive participial suffix ta

rāga: verb rasj with suffx a to form a substantive-
viṣayam : verb si with prefix vi and suffix a to from the substantive
: indeclinable
cittam: verb cit with past passive participial suffix ta

 

Meaning of Words

Vīta-rāga-viṣayam: an object free from desire
Vīta: free from
rāga: desire / binding attachment
viṣayam: object
: or
cittam: mind

(*This sūtra also uses sūtra 1-35 to complete its meaning. This process of flow through of a complete prior aphorism of parts there off is called anuvṛtti, a common construct in figuring out meaning of sūtras)

Sūtra 1-36

Sūtra 1-36
विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती। (३६)
Viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī*. (36)
Or, (perception of oneself as) luminous and free from sorrow (brings about steadiness of mind).

 

Sūtra words

Viśokā, vā and jyotiṣmatī.

Word Formation

Viśokā: First case singular, feminine gender noun formed from the verb śuc with prefix vi and suffixes a and ā.

: Indeclinable

jyotiṣmatī: First case singular feminine gender noun formed from jyotis with taddhita suffix mat and feminine gender forming suffix ā. This is in apposition with viśokā.

Meaning of Words

Viśokā: Free from sorrow / grief

: or

jyotiṣmatī: luminous

(*This sūtra uses sūtra 1-35 to complete its meaning. This process of flow through of a complete prior aphorism of parts there off is called anuvṛtti, a common construct in figuring out meaning of sūtras)