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Sutra Talk Podcast Sutra 2.23 & 2.24

Sūtra 2.23

(योग., अव.) इत्थं दृश्यद्रष्टारौ व्याख्याय तत्संयोगं व्याख्यातुमाह।
(Yogasudhākara, Avatārikā ) Ittham dṛśyadraṣṭāru vyākhyāya tat-saṁyogam vyākhyātum āha.
(Yoga. Intro.) Having explained the perceived and the perceiver, states their association.

 

स्वस्वामिशक्त्यो: स्वरूपोलब्धिहेतु: संयोगः। (सूत्रम्  २.२३)

Sva-swami-śaktyo svarūpa-upalabdhi-hetuḥ sam-yogaḥ. (2.23)

Association of the power of prakṛti and that of puruṣa is the means of seeing the nature of this association (for enjoyment and for liberation).

(योग.) स्वशक्तिर्दृश्यस्वभावः स्वामिशक्तिर्दृक्स्वभाव:। तयोश्चैत्तचेतनत्वेन व्यवस्थितयो: स्वरूपोलब्धिर्भोगापवर्गरूपा। तस्या हेतु: प्रत्ययः संयोगो द्ग्दृश्यभावोsविद्याकृत इति व्याख्यातम्। एवं च यस्याभावे दृग्दृश्ययो: स्वरूपोलब्धिर्न भवति यद्भावे सा भवति स संयोग:2.23.1 कार्यैकोन्नेय इत्युपदिष्टं भवति।

(Yoga.) Sva-śaktidṛśya-svabhāvaḥ svāmi- śaktiḥ dṛk-svabhāvaḥ. Tayoḥ caitta-cetanatvena vyavasthitayoḥ svrūpa-upalabdhiḥ bhoga- apavarga-rūpā. Tasyāhetuḥ pratyayaḥ sam-yogaḥ dṛk-dṛśya-bhāvaḥ avidyākṛtaḥ iti vyākhyātam. Evam ca yasya abhāve dṛk-dṛśyayoḥ svarūpa-upalabdhiḥ na bhavati yat-bhāve sā bhavati saḥ sam-yogaḥ kāryā ekā unneyaḥ iti upadiṣṭam bhavati.

(Yoga. Com.) Sva-śaktiḥ is the nature of the perceived (the insentient pradhāna/prakṛti  ), svāmi-śaktiḥ is the nature of the perceiver (sentiency puruṣa ).1 With the insentient (prakṛti) and the sentient (puruṣa) being present (in association), there is enjoyment and liberation (for the perceiver, the human being, puruṣa enshrined in the evolute of prakṛti). The cause of this association, the state of the perceiver and the perceived, is ignorance – this is substance of the aphorism.
And thus, in the absence of which there is no perceiver and perceived, and in its presence, both perceiver and perceived are available.2 The elimination of this association is the only task (for the seeker), this is the instruction here (in this yogaśāstra).

Sutra Talk Podcast Sutra 2.21

This is the audio of our discussion of 2.21.

This aphorism (2.21) was discussed in Yogasūtra group in September 2017.

Sadāśivabrahmendra‘s Yogasudhākara commentary

(योगसुधाकर:)  इत्थं दृश्यद्रष्टारावभिधाय तयो: शेषशेषित्वमभिधातुमाह।
(Yogasudhākaraḥ) Ittham dṛśyadraṣṭāru abhidhāya śeṣaśeṣitvam abhdhatum āha.(Introduction to the sūtra) Thus defining the perceived and the perceiver, to express their object-subject connection he (Patañjali) says:

Sūtra 2.21

तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा। (सू. २.२१) Tat-arthaḥ eva dṛśyasa ātmā. (2.21)
The essence of the perceived (world of objects) is only
for the sake of the perceiver (subject). (2.21)

(योगसुधाकर:) दृश्यस्य भोग्यस्यात्मा स्वरूपं द्रष्ट्रर्थमेव न स्वार्थमचेतनत्वादित्यर्थः।
(Yogasudhākaraḥ) dṛśyasya: bhogyasya, atmā: svarūpam, draṣṭṛ-artham eva na sva-artham acetantvāt iti arthaḥ
(Yogasudhākara commentary)The essence of the perceived is for the perceiver; not for its own sake, since it (the perceived, pradhāna) is insentient – this is meaning. 2.21.1

2.21.1 I use the word ‘perceived’ for dṛśya/pradhāna, this includes the phenomenal world as well as the body and mind of the perceiver (who is the seeker/ the liberated person). And, ‘ ‘perceiver’ is for dṛg/draṭṛ/puruṣa ).

Sūtra 1-51

Sūtra 1-51
तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजस्समाधिः। (५१)
Tasyāpi nirodhe sarvanirodhānnirbījassamādhiḥ.
(Tasya api nirodhe sarva-nirodhāt
nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ)
(51)
When even that (ṛtambhara, sabīja samādhi)
is restrained
, (there ensues) seedless meditative absorption (nirbījaamādhi).

Sūtra words
Tasya, api, nirodhe, sarva-nirodhāt, nirbījaḥ and samādhiḥ

Word formation
Tasya Sixth case singular of pronoun tat
Api Indeclinable
Nirodhe Seventh case singular masculine gender form of nirodha derived from the verb rudh with prefix ni and suffix a.
Sarva-nirodhāt Fifth case singular form of the sixth case of tatpuruṣa compound sarvanirodha from sarva and nirodha.
Nirbījaḥ First case singular masculine gender form of nirbīja, from the verb īj with prefixes ni and vi and suffix a.
Samādhiḥ First case singular masculine gender.

Word meaning
Tasya Of that (ṛtambhara)
Api also, even
Nirodhe when there is restraint / on restraint
Sarva-nirodhāt because of restraint of all
Nirbījaḥ seedless
Samādhiḥ absorption.

Sūtra 1-50

Sūtra 1-50
तज्जस्संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कारप्रतिबन्धी। (५०)
Tajjasaṁskāro’nyasaṁskārapratibandhī.
(Tajjaḥ saṁskāraḥ anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī) (50)
The subtle impression born out of that (truth bearing wisdom) obstruct other impressions.

 

Sūtra Words
Tajjaḥ, saṁskāraḥ and anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī

Word formation
Tajjaḥ First case singular, masculine gender of the compound tajja. This is derived from pronoun tat as the first member of the compound and the verb jan with suffix a.
saṁskāraḥ First case singular, masculine gender of saṁskāra. This is derived from the verb kṛ with prefix sam and suffix a.
anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī First case singular, masculine gender form of anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhin. Anya-saṁskāra is a type of tatpuruṣa compound of words anaya and saṁskāra. Pratibandhin is from the verb badh with prefix prati and suffix in. anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhin is a sixth case tatpuruṣa compound of words anya-saṁskāra and pratibandhī.

Word meaning
Tajjaḥ-saṁskāraḥ Subtle impressions born out of that (ṛtambharā prajñā)
Anya-saṁskāra-pratibandhī (is) opposed to other subtle impressions.

Sūtra 1-49

Sūtra 1-49
श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात्। (४९)
Śrutānumānaprajñābhyāmanyaviṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt.
(Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām anya-viṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt) (49)
(It, Ṛtaṁbharā) has a different focus from that of inference and scripture, because it has a particular (/ unique) object (namely the subject, the self, purua).

Sūtra words
Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām, anya-viṣayā and viśeṣārthatvāt

Word formation
Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām Fifth case dual feminine gender form of the compound Śruta-anumāna-prajñā comprising Śruta, anumāna and prajñā. Śruta is from the verb Śru and participle ta;  anumāna is from the verb with prefix anu and suffix ana.
Anya-viṣayā First case singular feminine gender form of the bahuvrīhi compound formed from anya and viṣaya.
Viśeṣārthatvāt Fifth case singular neuter gender form of the word Viśeṣārthatva. This is from the compound Viśeṣārtha to which a taddhita suffix tva is added. The fifth case is used to indicate ‘cause’.

Word meaning
Śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām different from knowledge (gained) through Śruti, scripture and inference
Anya-viṣayā different object
Viśeṣārthatvāt Since it has a special / unique object (namely the self)

Sūtra 1-48

Sūtra 1-48
ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा। (४८)
Ṛtaṁbharā tatra prajñā.
(Ṛtaṁbharā tatra prajñā) (48)
In that state (of sabīja-samāpatti there is) clear cognition is only Truth (of oneself). (48)

Sūtra words 
Ṛtaṁbharā, tatra, and prajñā

Word formation
Ṛtaṁbharā First case singular feminine gender form of Ṛtaṁbhara, a compound formed from Ṛtam and bhara. These two component words are formed from the verbs with suffix ta and bhṛ with suffix a respectively.
Tatra Seventh case singular of the pronoun tat.
Prajñā First person singular feminine gender form of Prajñā from the verb jan  suffixes a and ā

Word meaning
Ṛtaṁbharā Filled with truth, in context it means there is no error or confusion about the nature of oneself. Technically this word is also used in the tradition as a sabīja-samāpatti called dharmamegha.
Tatra There, in that state of sabīja-samāpatti
Prajñā Cognition, understanding

Sūtra 1-47

Sūtra 1-47
निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः। (४७)
Nirvicāravaiśāradye’dhyātmaprsādaḥ.
(Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye adhyātma-prsādaḥ) (47)
When one is an adept in Nirvicāra-samāpatti
there is clarity regarding the core of the self.

Sūtra words
Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye and adhyātma-prsādaḥ

Word formation
Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye Seventh case singular, neuter gender form of Nirvicāra-vaiśāradya, a compound. This sixth case tatpuruṣa compound has two component words, Nirvicāra and vaiśāradya. The second word is formed from viśārada by adding taddhita suffix ya. Viśārada is from the verb śṝ with prefix vi and suffixes ad, and a.
adhyātma-prsādaḥ First case singular, masculine gender form of  adhyātma-prasāda. This sixth case tatpuruṣa compound has two component words, adhyātma and prasāda.
prasāda is derived from the verb sad with prefix pra and suffix a.
adhyātma is an indeclinable compound formed from adhi and ātman

Word meaning
Nirvicāra-vaiśāradye When there is an proficiency in nirvicāra-samāpatti
adhyātma-prsādaḥ (there is) clarity regarding the core of one’s Being, the puruṣa.
adhyātma centered on oneself, core of oneself, core of one’s being. The indeclinable prefix adhi is used in the sense of location.
prasāda clarity, steadiness.

Sūtra 1-46

Sūtra 1-46
ता एव सबीजस्समाधिः। (४६)
Tā eva sabījassamādhiḥ.
(Tāḥ eva sabījaḥ samādhiḥ) (46)
They are indeed (only) samādhi-s with seed.

Sūtra words
Tāḥ, eva, sabījaḥ and samādhiḥ

Word formation
Tāḥ First case plural, feminine gender form of the pronoun tat.
eva Indeclinable
sabījaḥ First case singular masculine gender form of the compound sabīja, a compound formed by the component words, the indeclinable saha and bīja.
samādhiḥ First case singular masculine gender form of samādhi, formed from the verb dhā with prefixes sam and ā and the suffix i.

Word meaning
Tāḥ They (meaning the types of samādhi-s mentioned in earlier aphorisms — savitarka, nirvitarka, savicāra and nirvicāra)
eva indeed
sabījaḥ with seed
samādhiḥ samādhi

 

  • Samādhi / samāpatti with seed indicates that the seed of one’s latent impressions remain, thus the yogin can be potentially taken over by those latent tendencies. That is, all types of samprañata samādhi-s mentioned in sūtra1-17 belong to this type.